2012. Ph.D. in Communications, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Dissertation: “Videogame Culture as Transnational Media: One Neoliberalism, Many Resistances.” Chair of committee: Prof. Angharad Valdivia. Defended March 27, 2012.
2000. Ph.D. in Comparative Literature, 2000, University of Oregon. Degree received May 2000. Dissertation: “Global Storm: Theodor Adorno and Negative Dialectics.”
1994. M.A. in Comparative Literature, 1994, University of Oregon.
1991. B.A. in Literature, Antioch College.